Friday, March 27, 2020
Handel George Friedrich Handel was one of the most accomplished Baroque composers in his time. Born in Halle, Germany in 1685, he was the son of a wealthy barber who wanted his son to become a lawyer. However, he displayed such musical aptitude with the harpsichord, organ, oboe, counterpoint and fugue, he became an assistant with Friedrich Zachav, organist of the cathedral of Halle. However, Handel entered the University of Halle, but quickly withdrew, and left for the University of Hamburg, to study music. In 1706, Handel journeyed to Italy to further enhance his music. While there, he was greatly influenced by Alessandro Scarlatti and Arcangelo Corelli. Then in 1710, Handel was appointed "Kapellmeister," or Musical Director, to the Elector of Hanover, and received a commission to write an opera for London. Italian opera was all the rage in London, and Handel's soon became a quick success. However, Handel greatly longed for being in England, and returned in 1712. London provided a generous audience for Handel, and from 1712 to 1741 he produced thirty-six operas. In 1713, Te Deum and a Jubilate was performed by Handel at St. Paul's Cathedral, London, to celebrate the Peace of Utrecht. Queen Anne also granted Handel a handsome lifetime pension of two hundred pounds per year. Including Water Music, for George I, which was first performed in 1715 on the Thames at London. While most of Handel's operas were based on either historical, mythological, or legendary subjects, Serse, was one of his rare endeavors into comedy. Handel's operas were all sung in Italian, and adhere to the musical conventions of the day. There is little use of choruses or large ensembles, since one of the main objectives of this genre, called ?opera seria,' is the demonstration of vocal ability by individual singers. Also, for 18th century audiences, the main attraction in Handel's operas lay in the incredible feats of the ?castrati,' male singers whose soprano voices had been surgically preserved from childhood. These artists combined the soprano voices of women and the lung power of men, producing singers whose vocal feats became legendary. In England, Handel tried to start opera companies on a number of occasions, but these attempts to become a music executive failed miserably. On account the gradual decline in popularity of Italian opera in England, Handel turned to writing oratorios, which became the preferred taste. These works, sung in English, take their texts from the Bible. Handel's most famous oratorio, his best-known work in any genre, is Messiah, written in 1742. In addition to operas and oratorios, he wrote passions, secular choral pieces, anthems, cantatas, chamber sonatas, harpsichord suites, concerti, and orchestral pieces. Beyond composition, Handel was the first the real businessman in the world of music. He had a hand in organizing opera companies, obtaining financial support, and finding singers. He was also in constant demand at parties where he entertained guests with his lusty personality and exceptional abilities the keyboard. Of all composers, Handel was probably the most esteemed and appreciated in his own time. He rose to a position of the highest eminence in the musical world. His oratorios were the toast of the country, and of the continent as well. Toward the end of his life, Handel was plagued by ill health. From 1753, he was totally blind, though this did not stop his activities altogether. He died in 1759, and was buried with full state honors in Westminster Abbey. Bibliography "Classics World Biography: George Frederich Handel." 1997:Online. Internet. October 4 1998. Available WWW: http:://classicalmus.com/composers/handel.html Brimhall, John. My Favorite Classics. Miami Beach, FL.: Chas. H. Hansen Music Corp., 1969. "Handel, George Frideric." The Concise Columbia Encyclopedia. 1995.
Friday, March 6, 2020
An Overview of Facts About the U.S. Constitution The U.S. Constitution was written at the Philadelphia Convention, also known as the Constitutional Convention, and signed on September 17, 1787. It was ratified in 1789. The document established our nations fundamental laws and government structures and ensured basic rights for American citizens.Ã Preamble The preamble to the Constitution alone is one of the most important pieces of writing in American history. It sets up the basic principles of our democracy, and introduces the concept of federalism. It reads:Ã We the People of the United States, in Order to form a more perfect Union, establish Justice, insure domestic Tranquility, provide for the common defence, promote the general Welfare, and secure the Blessings of Liberty to ourselves and our Posterity, do ordain and establish this Constitution for the United States of America. Quick Facts The nickname for the U.S. Constitution is Bundle of Compromises.The Chief Draftsmen of the U.S. Constitution isÃ James Madison and Gouverneur Morris.The ratification of the U.S. Constitution happened in 1789 with the agreement of 9 out of 13 states. Eventually, all 13 would ratify the US Constitution. Overall Structure of the U.S. Constitution There are seven articles followed by 27 amendments.Ã The first 10 amendments are known as the Bill of Rights.The U.S. Constitution is currently considered the shortest governing document of any nation.The U.S. Constitution was organized secretly, behind locked doors that were guarded by sentries. Key Principles Separation of Powers:Ã An act of vesting the legislative, executive, and judicial powers of government in separate bodies.Checks and Balances:Ã Counterbalancing influences by which an organization or system is regulated, typically those ensuring that political power is not concentrated in the hands of individuals or groups.Federalism:Ã Federalism is the sharing of power between national and state governments. In America, the states existed first and they had the challenge of creating a national government. Ways to Amend the U.S. Constitution Proposal by convention of states, ratification by state conventions (never used)Proposal by convention of states, ratification by state legislatures (never used)Proposal by Congress, ratification by state conventions (used once)Proposal by Congress, ratification by state legislatures (used all other times) Proposing and Ratifying Amendments To propose an amendment, two-thirds of both houses of Congress vote to propose and amendment. Another way is to have two-thirdsÃ of the state legislatures ask Congress to call a national convention.To ratify an amendment, three-fourths of the state legislatures approve it. The second way is for three-fourths of ratifying conventions in states approve it. Interesting Constitutional Facts Only 12 of the 13 original states actually took part in writing the US Constitution.Rhode Island did not attend the Constitutional Convention, though they eventually were the last state to ratify the document in year 1790.Benjamin Franklin of Pennsylvania was the oldest delegate at the Constitutional Convention at the age of 81-years-old. Jonathon Dayton of New Jersey was the youngest in attendance at just 26-years-old.Over 11,000 amendments have been introduced in Congress. Only 27 have been ratified.Ã The Constitution contains several misspellings, including the misspelling of Pennsylvania as Pensylvania.
Wednesday, February 19, 2020
Quest Diagnostics Inc - Essay Example The company offered specialized esoteric testing on both coasts with acquisition of American Medical Laboratories (AML) in 2002. The company acquired Unilab Corporation in 2003 and exhibited its presence in California State. Later in 2005 the company made its presence felt in Kansas and Ohio by acquiring LabOne (Our History). EDGAROnline (Page 1) stated that Quest Diagnostics Inc. is a national leader in the healthcare sector providing diagnostic and allied services. The company leads in clinical laboratory testing, esoteric testing, molecular diagnostics; non-hospital based anatomic pathological services and analysing drug abuse. According to Reuters, the company has more than 2000 patient service centres and 35 principal laboratories in major metros and about 150 smaller "rapid response" laboratories all over the nation with wide range of services and helping physicians detect, diagnose, evaluate, monitor and treat diseases with the help of information technology solutions. The company processed more than 144 million requisitions as of the year ending December 31, 2005 and net revenue of 78% from routine testing and 17% from esoteric testing thus summing up to 95% net revenues for clinical laboratory testing. ... nd times." In addition to above the company also provides Risk Assessment Services to life insurance industry in the US and Canada and Clinical trial testing in the US, UK, Australia, Singapore and South Africa. The company manufactures and markets diagnostic test kits and systems for esoteric testing through its subsidiary Nichols Institute Diagnostics. According to Quest Diagnostics the company's vision reads as follows "Dedicated people improving the health of patients through unsurpassed diagnostic insights and innovation." The company's mission being "We will be the undisputed world leader of diagnostic testing, information and services" and the values are "Quality, Integrity, Innovation, Accountability, Collaboration and Leadership"(Our Vision, Mission and Values). According to Quest Diagnostics, Nichols Institute was the first laboratory in North America to achieve ISO 9001 certification in 1998 (Our Commitment to Quality). According to QMI Registration services ISO 9001 is based on the following eight Quality Management Principles, which are incorporated within the requirements of the standard, and can be applied to improve organizational performance: 1. Customer focus 2. Leadership 3. Involvement of people 4. Process approach 5. System approach to management 6. Continual improvement 7. Factual approach to decision making 8. Mutually beneficial supplier relationships The standard covers all aspects of an organization's activities, including identifying its key processes, defining roles and responsibilities, policies and objectives, documentation requirements, the importance of understanding and meeting customer requirements, communication, resource requirements, training, product and process planning, design processes, purchasing, production and service,
Tuesday, February 4, 2020
Law for Business - Essay Example ng that Ã¢â¬Å"we shall be holding you responsible for any claims brought against us by any customers who have suffered loss as a result of use of the toy.Ã¢â¬ In a different case, Toys4U posted an advertisement in the newspaper a vacancy for a sales assistant. Amanda applied for the job. She was called for an interview at the store. After the interview, Amanda was told that her application failed since she did not have the Ã¢â¬Ëright attributes.Ã¢â¬â¢ The Sale of Goods Act 1979 specifically section 14 protects purchaser of goods against latent defects. In the outset though, there is a need to determine whether the transaction between Mrs. Sharma and Toys4U falls within the lawÃ¢â¬â¢s protection by establishing that the sale was made Ã¢â¬Å"in the course of a business.Ã¢â¬ While this is not defined in SoGA 1979, UCTA 1977 explained that the phrase in the course of business indicates that the sale be an integral part of the business (Koffman & Macdonald, 2007). In this case, Mrs. Sharma bought the toy in Toys4U, a retailer selling toys in the normal course of its business. Quite clearly, the transaction was not a mere private sale. The claim which Mrs. Sharma may file against Toys4U involves the breach of implied terms in the purchase of the toy Polaris Missile under section 14 of the Sale of Goods Act 1979. There may be liability by Toys4U with respect to its implied conditions to the productÃ¢â¬â¢s Ã¢â¬Ëfitness for purposeÃ¢â¬â¢ and Ã¢â¬Ësatisfactory qualityÃ¢â¬â¢ since it was the proximate cause of PritamÃ¢â¬â¢s injury. Section 1 (1) of the Sale and Supply of Goods Act 1994 which amended s. 14 (2) of SoGA 1979 provides that "where the seller sells goods in the course of a business, there is an implied condition that the goods supplied under the contract are of satisfactory qualityÃ¢â¬ (cited in Chantry, n.d., p. 130). As laid down in s.1(2A) of the 1994 Act, Ã¢â¬Å"goods are of satisfactory quality if they meet the standard that a reasonable person would regard as satisfactory, taking account of
Monday, January 27, 2020
Training and development Training and development Human Resource Development (HRD) can be universally recognised as a very effective approach to improve performance within training. Training consists of a variety of experiences that intend to enhance and develop skills and knowledge in order to accomplish organisational objectives, to improve and change organisational aspects within the work place (Bramley 1996; Broad Newstorm 1992). According to Manpower Services Commission (1981) training is a planned process to modify attitude, knowledge, skills, or behaviour through learning experience to achieve effective performance in an activity or range of activities. Its purpose in work situation is to develop the abilities of the individuals and to satisfy the current and future needs of the organisation. In the same way development is a type of progression in which persons may find it more effective when learning through experiences. It is a procedure that helps people make use of the skills and knowledge that their past teachings and training has given them, this helps not only in present jobs but also anything that may come up in the future. It personifies theories and ideas connected with psychological growth, greater immaturity and increased confidence. According to Ivancevich (2004), training and development are processes that provide (or at least try to) a personnel with information and skills they need in order to understand the organisation and its goals. They are designed to help a person continue to make positive contributions in the form of good performance. Training helps personnel do their current work better while development prepares them for the future. Training is an important process to every personnel. It is a systematic process in which an individual is aided to alter his behaviour in a direction that will achieve the organisations goals. Ivancevich (2004) describes the goals of training as training validity, transfer validity, intra-organisational validity, and inter-organisational validity. Training validity determines if the trainees learn skills or acquire knowledge or abilities during training while transfer validity determines if these learned skills or acquired knowledge or abilities result to improvement on job performance. Intra-organisational validity determines if the job performance of a new group of trainees in the same organisation that developed the program comparable to that of the original training groups job performance. Finally, intra-organisational validity determines if the validated training program in one organisation can be applied with successful results in another organisation. Noe (2003) defines training as Ã¢â¬Å"planned effort by a company to facilitate personnel learning of job-related competenciesÃ¢â¬ including knowledge, skills, or behaviours that are critical for successful job performance. Training helps personnel master knowledge, skills, abilities and behaviours emphasised in training programs and to apply them in their day-to-day activities (Noe 2003). As argued by Noe (2003), training is a process which not only needs basic skills, which would be skills that are sufficient enough to perform ones job, but also needs skills at an advanced levels which enables a person to use high technological information and share it with other personnel. This would be perfect in order to gain competitive advantage. A good understanding of the customer and the system is also a key aspect within training. Al of these put together collectively defines intellectual capital. A training initiative which requires generating intellectual capital is a training which goes by the name of high -leverage training. According to Carnevale (1990), high-leverage training, which is linked to strategic business goals and objectives, uses an instructional design process to ensure the effectiveness of training programs, and compares or benchmarks the companys training programs against other companys training programs. According to Richard M. Hodgetts and Fred Luthans (1976), training is a procedure of changing behaviour and attitudes in a way that increases the success of reaching ones targets. According to both theorists culture, customs and work habits of the local people should also be taught in training process. And if all the above mentioned factors along with other factors are considered properly it would boost towards the success of any establishment. Formal training programs are not seen to be enough in accordance to todays fast moving world, this is the thought contributed by the author Hall (2004). A few other things the author believes is that in order to uphold certain standards that are commercial and cost effective, the people should be execution experts. A lot of senior executives believe that budget will stay tight, even after a full economic recovery, and that headcount, time. IT support, and other resources will continue to be in short supply. The opportunity and demand for enterprise-wide initiatives to bring about wholesale change will only increase. If you are a leader of learning, your future and the future of your organisation depends on your ability to make significant initiatives happen despite the challenges of day-to-day work. To acquire this you need to become an execution expert. Todays best-in-class learning professionals operate differently than those who came before them. Their thoughts are focused on 3 areas: business strategy, resources, and execution. (Hall 2004, p65-6). Two different training methods are identified by the authors (Ferris et al, 2006), the first set of training is described as the routine training which is given to all level of working staff. The other set of training however, is a type of training in which political skills is the main and important component of training and development process and is aimed mainly for senior executives. As the work force moves up the chain of command to higher jobs at wider scales, technical capability is less important and political skill takes its place. When the centre for Creative Leadership studied why once-promising executives failed on the job, lack of social effectiveness emerged as a leading cause. The political skill which is mentioned quite a bit, is a type of skill that distinguishes successful and efficient managers from those managers who are inefficient. It is also an ability which merges together social intelligence which facilitates and adjusts to situations where differentiation and changes are of demand. In return this helps in developing and advancing the working conditions. Training and development at individual level:- To identify each persons own knowledge, skills and abilities in order to assess each individual and progress them at the pace According themselves. Psychology theorists e.g. Likert (1961), Mayo (1933) cited by Younglin (2001) entails that employee satisfaction and well being are related to performance, but in those theories they did not explicitly hypothesize about the appropriate level of analysis, for example individuals, groups or organizations. Assessments and one to one meetings allow employees to reflect on their own learning needs in relation to their work aims. It also provides well controlled learning experiences linked to professional and administrative needs, goals and job requirements. Individual levelled training and development is the base and the stepping stone of any needs assessment. All managers have different emphasis on specific needs collaborating with their job description, level of education and intelligence experience and personal choice. Focusing on employees individual needs appraisals makes it easier to compile personal development plans that suit each employee according to their own level of competency. Training and development at organisational level:- It is vital for organisations to focus on peoples capability to foresee, adapt and respond to sudden changes in the environment. Training and development will have to join together it with corporate goals. It must be accurate with what the business leaders are trying to achieve. In order for training to seem more appropriate, its programme will revolve around business related matters for the future. In practice, its achievements will shoulder on developing apparent training objectives from the tactical issues of the business. Effective managers are created in an environment where there is continuity in the learning manner. A high level of experience, expertise and mind power of the internal as well as external trainers is essential, along with their commitment and capability to maintain a healthy relationship committed to management maturity. The method of learning can often engage unlearning certain behaviours and attitudes. certainly, in relation to organisations (Hamel Prahalad 1994, cited in Cole, 2000, p268) found that Ã¢â¬Ëcreating a Ã¢â¬Å" learning organisationÃ¢â¬ is only half the solution. Just as important is creating an Ã¢â¬Å" unlearning organisationÃ¢â¬ to create the future, a company must unlearn at least some of its past. According to Cole (2000) training and development of workforce is a concern that is faced by more or less all the establishment. The quantity and excellence of training carried out varies a lot from organisation to organisation. Therefore most of the establishments are adapting systematic approach to the training and development of their employees. Organisations use systematic training cycle to perform a logical sequence of activities commencing within the organisations starting with the training policy, assessment of training needs, carrying out training and evaluations. Cole (2000, p.278) summarises that this training cycle is quite beneficial within an organisation. The systematic approach to training and development arises from the amount of internal and external stress for alteration in the organisation. Firstly in a systematic approach is to develop a policy statement to act as a channel to the organisations intentions regarding the weight and track to be given by to training and development. Secondly initialise a set of roles for those in charge for implementing the policy and thirdly to set up a appropriate structure of training posts and procedures, and to allocate adequate funds to the training establishment. As all the steps are followed with completeness then one can focus on the analysis of training needs, evaluation and review of training carried out. Training policy Establishments mostly deal with a wide range of policies dealing with human resources. Policies are set by the establishments to develop their employees and to monitor their performance by certain training and development programs and courses, conducted internally or externally. According to Cole (2000),training focuses on learning needs and are mainly associated to existing responsibilities and duties which are narrowly linked to short, medium and long term business plans and are seen as an key element of an establishment to prove to its consumers, training and development are the key to success of any organisational goals which indicates the overall plan of an organisation, execution of training and development programs provides a direct link to the organisational goals for those who are accountable for the best possible results. Most of the organisations have a extended tradition of raising their own managers and professionals and providing them with in-house courses according to organisational needs. Some of the organisations rely on external management trainings and courses. Training needs Needs assessment is the process of determining if training is necessary (Noe 2003) and identifying the organisations training needs (Ivancevich 2004) and answering the question of whether training addresses the organisations needs, objectives and problems (Arthur et al. 2003). According to Noe (2003), if the needs assessment phase, the first phase in the instructional design process, is poorly conducted, training will not meet the desired outcome or financial benefit for the company, regardless of the training method and the learning environment. According to Boydell (1985) there are three levels of training needs which are to be studied before putting the programs in to practice. This three-step process consists of organisational analysis, person analysis and task analysis. There are a few factors linked with organisational analysis, such as when given the company resources is the relevant training appropriate, where is training needed in the organisation, which goals can be accomplished through personnel training, and if to determine as to wether or not training can be used to improve a companys success ( Noe 2003, Arthur et al. 2003, Ivancevich 2004). When assessed at an organisational level we must see the general weaknesses the organisation has perceived in its priorities and what would be the prescribed remedy that would be required in alteration of the organisational culture. According to Noe (2003), there are three factors to be considered before choosing training as a solution, these three factors being, the companys strategic direction, managers and peers support for training activities and the training resources available.(Noe 2003) Training to some level should help a company achieve its business strategy. If one was to define a business strategy, it is said that this is an approach which refers to a plan that joins together the companys goal, policies and actions (Meister 2000). Noe (2003) also mentions that Ã¢â¬Å"the strategic role of training influences the frequency and type of training, and how the training function is organised in the company.Ã¢â¬ (p 42) it is more likely the regularity of training will be higher in companies where training is expected to be a factor in the achievement of the companys business strategies and goals as a post to those companies where in training is done randomly or unplanned. Also it is said that the higher the strategic role of planning, it is more likely that the company will organise the training purpose using a virtual training organisation or corporate university models. (Noe 2003) The managers and peers support for training activities is a critical factor in considering a training programme. To be successful, managers and peers should have a positive attitude in participating a training activity. Furthermore, managers and peers should be willing to provide trainees with information on how they can effectively use knowledge, skill or behaviours learned in the training activity (Bramley 1996). To determine the initiation of a training activity it is essential for the company to have all necessary resources. For example if a company decides to hire a consultant for training purposes it is vital for that consultant to provide a high quality level of training. According to Noe (2003), it is advisable that a company use request for proposal (RFP) because it helps to identify the consultants or vendors who qualify for the criteria. RFP includes the type of service the company is seeking, the type and number of references needed, the number of personnel to be trained, the funding for the project, the follow-up process used to determine the level of satisfaction and service, expected date of completion, and the date when proposals must be received by the company (Noe 2003). Person analysis is a procedure which helps the establishment to identify the personnel and how they need to be trained. The analysis verifies all the necessary personnel readiness for training and development, such as personnel abilities, attitudes, beliefs, and enthusiasm. All these factors are vital for the person to learn from the training activity and apply it to the job. Being ready and fully aware for training also means that the work atmosphere will aid with learning and will not hinder with any kind of performance (Noe 2003). The present abilities (skills, knowledge and attitudes) of each staff member concerned had to be assessed against the higher standards needed to carry out their work satisfactorily and any short falls remedied through training. An indicator of the need for training is poor performance measured by customer complaints, low performance ratings, or on-the-job incidents such as accidents and unsafe behaviour. Job changes are also an indicator of the need for training. Job changes can be improvement of the current level of performances or the need for personnel to complete new tasks. (Noe 2003) According to Rummler and Brache (1996), factors such as, person characteristics, input, output, knowledge, consequences and feedback control personnel performance. Persons qualities are what construct the knowledge, skills and abilities of the personnel. The above mentioned factor of input refers to the directives that enable the personnel to know when, what and how to perform but at the same time also, the resources such as equipment, time or budget contributes also to the performance. Output is the standard according to the personnel of how the job is performed. A consequence is an aspect that gives encouragement to the personnel when they perform well. Feedback is the information the personnel receive while they are performing (Noe 2003). Ivancevich (2004) describes task analysis as the identification of the tasks, knowledge, skills and behaviours that should be covered in a training program. According to Schneier, Guthrie and Olian (1988), there are four steps involved in task analysis. First, select the job or jobs to be analysed. Then, build up a preliminary list of tasks performed on the job. This can be done by interviewing and observing expert personnel and their managers and talking with others who have performed a task analysis. Third, confirm the preliminary list of tasks by asking several questions regarding the tasks a group of subject matter experts in a meeting or through a written survey. Through this, the management can determine which tasks must be included in the training program. Important tasks that are frequently performed and of moderate to high level of difficulty should be included in the training while tasks that are not important and infrequently performed should not be included. However, since there are tasks that are important but are less frequently performed, managers and trainers should determine whether these tasks should be trained for. (Noe 2003) The last step is to identify the knowledge, skills or abilities needed to successfully perform the tasks identified. Similar in identifying the tasks to be trained for, knowledge, skills or abilities necessary can be learned through interviews and questionnaires. It is important to know the level of difficulty in learning knowledge, skills and abilities (Bramley 1996). Ivancevich (2004) points out that these assessment categories are important. However, training assessment should focus on the personnel needs because it is at the individual or group level that training is conducted (Ivancevich 2003, p114). According to Kirkpatrick, there are four ways to determine the personnel needs for training. These are through observation of the personnel, listening to the personnel, asking the supervisors about their personnel needs, and examining the problems the personnel have with regards to their job (Kirkpatrick 1996). Michalak and Yager (1979) further stresses that by doing this, the manager is actually conducting a performance analysis. There are steps in performance analysis. First step is the evaluation of the personnel performance and determining if there is a behaviour discrepancy in the personnel performance. Next, the cost and value of correcting the identified behaviour discrepancy should be determined. Then, determine if the personnel can do the expected job if he wanted to (Ivancevich 2004). Then, establish a standard and communicate this clearly to improve job performance. Then, remove obstacles that might cause behaviour discrepancy. Next, the manager should give the personnel time to practice the skills, knowledge and abilities needed in performing their job. Next, decide if the job should be redesigned. If all else fails, the managers should take matters to the next level and decide whether to transfer the personnel to another department or to terminate his contract. However, performance analysis may result to a problem in the driving force. Corroborations such as reward, punishment, or discipline may be essential to create stimulus for the whole work force. Performance analysis may also lead to recognising a need for training and development. However, some organisations avoid doing training needs assessment. According to Schneier, Guthrie and Olian (1988), the possible reasons for this are lack of information on conducting training needs assessment, management scepticism on the effectiveness of training needs assessment, poor planning and lack of time in doing training needs assessment. But Schneier, Guthrie and Olian (1988) stress that training needs assessment should be done because there are many benefits that result from doing this such as improving the training function, tying in with other personnel/human resource management (P/HRM) programs and improving their efficacy, and increasing legal defensibility. Training Process Though typically the shortest phase in the training process, the training program itself encompasses a myriad of details which must be thought about carefully in order that a program will run smoothly, remain true to its defined objectives, and facilitate the transfer of knowledge. Coordinating the logistics of a training program is a detailed and essential step in planning a successful training program. As Van Wart, Cayer, and Cook (1993, p.235) point out, careful planning results in substantially fewer problems, headaches, and even disasters. Countless items such as facilities, room set-up, scheduling, registration, snacks, name tags, audio-visual needs, correspondence with trainees, social events, and the compilation of training materials must be taken into account to insure a successful program. In addition, it is important to plan in advance how to open and close a training session, to avoid awkward transitions and a poor climate during the session (Nadler Nadler 1994). Another important consideration is the materials and kit which will be used to communicate information to the participants. Handouts, textbooks, manuals, and other visual aids (VanWart, Cayer, Cook 1994) enhance the training environment and give participants tangible records of their training to take away and refer to when a refresher is necessary. There should be plenty of materials for all of the participants and extras for those who may register at the last minute. Equipment should be checked to make sure it is in good working condition prior to the program (Nadler Nadler 1994). And finally, as with most things in life, it never hurts to have a contingency plan. A training program may incorporate many different types of strategies for communicating information and fostering a learning environment. Lectures, group activities, discussions, videos, games, guest speakers, case studies, presentations, panel discussions, outdoor interventions, and hands-on skill training are but a few examples of the variety of methods which exist for use in training situations. Beary (1994) suggests that trainers should use questions in training to serve as icebreakers, determine knowledge levels and attitudes, stimulate discussion, share knowledge, make transitions, and build teams. Harris (1994) puts forth his P.R.A.C.T.I.C.A.L. model for better-than-average presentations which calls for attention to be paid to: Partnerships, Rhetorical questions, the Ability to be spontaneous, Conversational style, Tone of voice, Involvement, Creativity, Acute relevance, and Lucidity. Harris also provides four verbal tools which can be used to vary presentations through language. Analogies, alliteration, plays on words, and rhymes can be useful ways to draw attention to material which may require spicing up. A trainer would certainly want to consider his or her audience before using some of these tools. A group of firemen may not be impressed by rhyming skills, while a group of writers might find it very refreshing. Kaeter (1994) suggests several ways to create a training culture, which, she explains, will enhance the environment and may even help a trainer to deal with the ever-present resistant trainee. Her ideas include: researching the situation in advance, making knowledge relevant to those situations, facilitating rather than lecturing, making a clear link between the person, the job, and the goals of the organisation, not ignoring resistant participants, deflecting attacks by drawing in the group, and being available after training for questions and one-on-one discussions. Given that in almost every training situation, there will be one or two individuals who are resistant to the ideas being presented, (or to the very idea of being at a training program) it is important to create a culture which deals proactively with resisters and allows learning to occur for everyone. In addition to those presented here, there are hundreds of other useful approaches to conducting effective training programs. The important thing to recognise is that each method and strategy has inherent strengths and weaknesses, and that there is not one method or strategy whose use will result consistently in a flawless training program. A combination of methods, strategies, and techniques makes for a rich, diverse, cooperative, and instructive training situation. In any training situation, it is important to appreciate the variety of ways that people learn, and to use techniques, which will meet the needs of a diverse group of learners (Armstrong 1988). While some individuals may learn kinaesthetically, others may be more receptive to visual or auditory techniques. A trainer must design his or her program to incorporate elements which will be useful to all types of learners, also taking into consideration the knowledge, skills, abilities, and motivation that trainees bring to the training situation. (VanWart, Cayer, Cook 1994, p 139) According to Bramley (1996), learning situations should be sequenced so that various styles of learning are integrated into the whole. A useful model, based on adult experiential learning, is the Kolb (1984) cycle of learning (see Figure 2). This model requires that activity in all four stages take place for effective learning to occur. Training which is designed with a variety of learning styles in mind will greatly encourage trainees to incorporate the knowledge into their own way of thinking, and transfer the training into the workplace. After logistics and strategies are determined, the designer must decide the most appropriate method for gathering evaluations and feedback from the participants. This step can be used to identify opportunities for further training, to enhance learning, to identify problems and possible solutions, to assess the impact of the training, and to monitor changes in thinking related to the training (Brinkerhoff Gill 1994). Such information can be obtained through observation of reactions to training programs, through learning reviews provided by participants (Bramley, 1996), or through pre and post-testing of skills, attitudes, and behaviours. In addition, there are a variety of questionnaire types which can be utilised for evaluations. Regardless of the type of questionnaire, which is used, however, it is crucial to gather feedback from as many of the participants as possible, to give them a forum for providing the most honest and detailed feedback possible, and to take future action based on the responses (Kirkpatrick 1996). Another valuable method of gaining feedback from participants is to speak with them individually, perhaps at some point during the program, or in a scheduled meeting or discussion group held shortly after the program takes place. It is vital to remember that changes in attitude do not necessarily equals change in behaviour. While information about attitudes may drop light on trainees immediate reactions and learning, such information alone is not necessarily a good indicator of long term changes in behaviour or overall results of training. As demonstrated by this study, it is important to collect a variety of data at several differing intervals, in order to gain the best understanding of the training and the outcomes of it. Evaluation of Training The final stage of the systematic training process is the evaluation of training. This can be done by comparing the results, especially the benefits, with the objectives of the training program set in the assessment phase (Ivancevich 2004). As mentioned in the introduction chapter, many companies are increasingly concerned if training adds value to organisations and training departments are continuously justifying the effectiveness of training (Phillips 1996; Holton 1995). Preskill (1997) asserts that the most appropriate method to determine the effectiveness of training is through training evaluation. As Jones (2006, p.42) said, Ã¢â¬Å"It is essential for HRD practitioners to use the training evaluation method in order to determine whether an organisation receives a significant return on investment in terms of human resources, time and money.Ã¢â¬ There are many reasons as to why training evaluation should be done. Evaluation can be a tool for informing the trainees of their progress, modifying and improving programs and instructor performance, and providing evidence to managers that problems and issues have been addressed and solved (Laird 1985). Training effectiveness is also a measure of the training departments credibility (Kirkpatrick 1996). Other benefits brought about by doing training evaluation are increased confidence in the trainers claim, increased legitimacy of the training function in organisations, justification for continued support, valuable feedback for improving training methods (Phillips 1996, Jones 2006). Noe (2003 p98-9) summarises these reasons in the following: to identify the programs strengths and weaknesses; to evaluate whether the content, organisation and administration of the program contribute to learning and the use of training content on the job; to identify which trainees benefited most or least from the program; to gather data to assist in marketing the program to determine the financial benefits and costs of the program; to compare the costs and benefits of training and non-training investments; to compare the costs and benefits of different training programs to know which training program is best to use. As with any other evaluation process, criteria should be established for easier evaluation. Ivancevich (2004, p77) points out the three types of criteria Ã¢â¬â internal, external, and participants reaction. However, participants reaction can be included in the internal criterion. The internal criteria are concerned with the content of the training program. The external criteria are concerned with the ultimate goal of the program. Many training evaluation models were developed. The most popular of which is Donald Kirkpatricks (1994) four-level evaluation criterion. According to thi
Sunday, January 19, 2020
Suellen Fonseca Physics 151 April 3, 2013 Questions and Answers: 1. Define uniform circular motion. ? A. Is an object in uniform circular motion accelerating? ? B. Define centripetal acceleration, and state its magnitude and direction. (2. 0 points) Ans: An object moving at a constant velocity around a circular path is performing a uniform circular motion. The objectÃ¢â¬â¢s path is considered to be tangent to the circle due to the fact that it is constantly changing position as it goes around the circle.Therefore the velocity would also be tangent to the circle. [A] The object in uniform circular motion is experiencing acceleration due to the fact that is it changing direction constantly. [B] This is the centripetal acceleration. ItÃ¢â¬â¢s directed towards the center of rotation. Is magnitude is calculated by V2r where v is the tangential velocity and r is the radius of rotation 2. A car is driven around a circular track. Which would have a greater effect on the magnitude of its acceleration, doubling the speed or moving to a track with half the radius?Please show your proof or calculations. (1. 0 point) A. Define centripetal force (F c) ? B. Which object is providing the centripetal force in this experiment? Ans: Cense acceleration is given by V2r doubling the velocity has a greater effect then dividing the radius by 2. [A] The force the supply the acceleration is called centripetal force. This force is also always directed towards the center of rotation. [B] The object providing the centrifugal force in this experiment is the tention in the rope. 3.When you go around a corner in a car, do you feel centripetal or centrifugal (Fg) force ? acting upon you? (1. 5 points) Ans: The car is experiencing centripetal force thus it does not Ã¢â¬Å"fly of Ã¢â¬Å" the streat. 4. Explain why ? F=mg? =? Fc=4? 2 M f 2 r? in our experiment. (0. 5 point) Ans: It worked because the balancing force is the tetion In the string which allows the wheight to move in a circle. 5. List the data and sample calculations obtained in lab. (0. 5 point) | r (meter) | m (kg)| f (sec^-1)| a_c = 4(? ^2)(f^2)r (m/s^2)| F_c = mg (N)| 1| 0. 49| 0. 4| 1. 271| 9. 502| 3. 92| 2| 0. 16| 0. 45| 1. 348| 11. 478| 4. 41| 3| 0. 175| 0. 55| 1. 416| 13. 852| 5. 39| 4| 0. 197| 0. 79| 1. 608| 20. 109| 7. 742| 6. Plot the graph of Fc vs. ac . A. What is the expected slope of the line graphed (and explain why you expect this result)? B. Calculate the actual slope of best fit line. Also calculate the percent error for the slope, and ? state and explain the sources of error. (4. 5 points) [A] the expected slope id 0. 4 [B] the actual slope from the best fit line is 0. 106. One sores of errow would be the timing of the number of revolutions. An erro on the radius mesurament | Uncertainty| Slope| Ã ±0. 01522| y-intercept| Ã ±0. 2177| 7. What do you expect the y-intercept of the line from question 6 to be? Find the actual y-intercept for your best fit line. (show calculations) (1. 0 point ) 8. Imagine that a much harder spring (spring with higher spring constant k) is used in the experiment. Explain how the centripetal force F c and the period f of the hanging mass will change. i. e. if they will increase or decrease) (1. 0 point) Ans: If we had a harder spring the frequency would be bigger therefore the centripetal force would also be bigger. Conclusion: In this lab we were trying to prove that fc=mg. according to my calculations the results were close but not perfect. This can be because of lost of energy due to friction or simply error in calculations. As predicted every time there was a change in radius or the frequency the centripetal force changed.
Friday, January 10, 2020
The principle error Maureen made was underestimating how significant company culture could impact decision-making at every responsibility level. Even though Quaker had strict functional reporting lines, the organization supported an informal culture based on friendliness and openness. Most importantly, QuakerÃ¢â¬â¢s ethos required a high degree of influence by persuasion and charismaÃ¢â¬ânot formal authority. Secondly, the communication vehicle that Maureen chose to carry and deliver her proposed plan was ill suited for interconnecting the plan and expectations. Instead of going with the organizationÃ¢â¬â¢s pattern of utilizing personal relationships, teamwork, and the openness to express opinions and feedback, Maureen sent a memo directly to the titanium extrusion sales representatives. In the memo, she simply gave a rationale for making the change. In response, a District Sales Manager (DSM) called Maureen to ask for a more detailed explanation for the change due to its arbitrary nature. Therefore, Maureen presented her findings to the DSMs in a yearly sales meeting in the presence of the VP of Marketing. Ã¢â¬ ¢Lack of empowerment from authority: Although MaureenÃ¢â¬â¢s plan obtained approval from her boss, Hugh Salk, there was never a statement from the VP of Sales to his subordinates (district sales managers and sales representatives) supporting the proposal. As seen in Exhibit 2, Lawrence Israel, the VP of Sales has direct power over DSMs. Ã¢â¬ ¢CompanyÃ¢â¬â¢s hiring practices: Maureen was hired at a managerial position because she had a very attractive professional background that made her a highly desirable candidate for her role. However, this was not in line with the company culture that encouraged internal promotions rather than external hiring at a managerial level (Ã¢â¬ËTypically, managers who joined Quaker from other steel or metal producers found the company a confusing and frustrating place in which to work. For this and this other reasons, most of QuakerÃ¢â¬â¢s managerial positions were filled from withinÃ¢â¬â¢, p2). Ã¢â¬ ¢Ã¢â¬Å"Responsibility linesÃ¢â¬ structure: Due to the companyÃ¢â¬â¢s growth, many managers and at times whole divisions were responsible to other departments even though there was not a preset hierarchy that linked them. This situation complicated to a certain extent the relationship between the product management groups and the sales force as can be inferred from the fact that the titanium DSM in Chicago had to report to two bosses (p5). Ã¢â¬ ¢Sales forceÃ¢â¬â¢s lack of adaptation: Sales representatives were assigned to accounts based on experience and usually had tough time cracking big accounts. This was in part due to lack of backing from the technical support services and sometimes from the R&D labs as the larger accounts were more technically complex. It was also because there were no additional economical benefits to work on bigger accounts, thus harder work was not compensated in any manner (Ã¢â¬ËThe Chicago DSM explained that a modest cash bonus existed, but that he did not use it, believing it had little effectÃ¢â¬â¢, p6). Hence, the only motivation for the sales people was closing a successful deal and working directly with customers which was frequent with small accounts. Ã¢â¬ ¢Lack of relationship and communication: Maureen spent so much time analyzing the sales time simulations; therefore, she did not spend enough time getting to know other team members on the field. These circumstances did not favor building Ã¢â¬Å"trustÃ¢â¬ with the sales personnel and this lack of participation within the decision-making process hindered effective results (Ã¢â¬ËIn response to the memo, one of the titanium DSMs called her to say that he had received several complaints from his salespeople about its arbitrary natureÃ¢â¬â¢, p8).